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Description: Articles on fitness, diet, bodybuilding, cardio, exercise and nutrition by world famous authors in each field.

spring summer 2013 contents may june 08 using poles for walking & exercise by Jayah Faye Paley by Steve Downs 20 bigger biceps made ez 30 capitalizing on market demand youth training by Nick Clayton 20 38 fit finds product guide your ultimate by Albert Khoury 44 double kettlebell drills to amp your athleticism by Jon Bruney pg44 30 54 guess do not assess by John Paul Catanzaro part 1 54 60 complete integrated body composition assessment by Ileana Stefanescu by Dr. Edwin Adams by Miguel Franco series 66 transformation must come to an end part 5 all good things 71 why is in-home personal training so effective 60 66 71 Fitnesstrainermagazine pg20 Fitness Trainer Magazine A subsidiary of the Mallarina Sales Corporation SUPPORTED BY THE NATIONAL STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING ASSOCIATION President and PuBlisher Robert B.Rose One Sassi Drive Croton On Hudson N.Y. 10520 brexercisegroup 914 739 0214 editorial director albert khoury ftmeditor distriBution manager Leslie S. Rose - mallarinarose adVertising Chuck Colletti - chuck Rick Rosner - richardrosner graPhic designer Jesse Radford contriButing Writers Dr. Edwin Adams John Paul Catanzaro Nick Clayton Steve Downs Miguel Franco Jayah Faye Paley Ileana Stefanascu coVer PhotograPhy By Dragon Door Publications Fitness Trainer is published six times each year January February March April May June July August September October and November December. Personal Training annual is delivered to readers on November 25th and remains on Facebook and social media for a full year. the annual is offered to readers for a price of 2.50. click the cover to read Fitnesstrainermagazine let s get personal Hello fitness trainers This is Al Khoury the new Editorial Director of Fitness Trainer Magazine and I d like to welcome you to the best issue yet We have been growing since our first issue back in July of 2012 and this is our biggest development to date. Those of you who have been faithful followers will immediately notice our new look. We are using a new platform for the magazine it is cleaner simpler and easier to read. There are no less than three ways to turn the pages. You no longer have to opt in to read. All website links as well as the table of contents are fully functional. Most importantly the entire issue loads very quickly. If you have a problem viewing the issue don t hesitate to let us know. We are working hard to make the magazine accessible to anyone anywhere and at any time. Drop by and tell us how we re doing on FTM s Facebook Page nutratech inc. a North Jersey based Nutritional Ingredient supplier is looking for a motivated fitness enthusiast to join our lucrative department in a sales capacity. We require a degree in exercise science or related field and a vast knowledge of sports nutrition supplements. We are a quickly growing company and well established company with highly competitive compensation packages. We sell many different items to the largest sports nutrition companies in the world. Candidate should be aggressive focused organized and someone who wants to earn. 3-5 years selling experience a plus. Please provide resume and cover letter. Please email sportssales Letters to the Editor Thanks for the heads up on your magazine. Please let us introduce ourselves. We are the (U.S. trademark) and we would like to talk about how we might work together to find and recognize the Best of the Best Trainers in America and the World. Ted Gambordella President Hi there Finally I am getting back to you as when first introduced to this magazine you asked for feedback Well I really like it Especially that it is geared towards trainers with leads to help business in many different aspects Many different aspects do make up what trainers in reality have to deal with in each unique situation with clients So if you can keep that coming that would be amazing Best of luck and continued success Thank You RLQ Hello Robert how are you. I m loving this magazine so much and I ve been talking about it to a lot with my fitness friends. I want you to know I run and own a Pilates and fitness studio in Norwalk CT and I also have a satellite gym where I run Pilates Sport classes as well. I would love it if we could talk sometime soon about doing an article for you and your magazine. My studio has a lot to offer and I do as well. I ve done articles for Men s Fitness Magazine on Chris Humphries and discusses how Pilates has given him an edge above the rest. I ve also done articles for Muscle and Fitness Magazine as well. Let me know if and when we can talk. Jennifer Mongeluzo Owner The Pilates Centre 650 West Ave Norwalk CT 06850 W e have some great new contributors joining our worthy regulars. Jayah Faye Paley brings her expert knowledge of pole walking to the table. In the first of a two part series J.P. Catanzaro reminds us that health and fitness are not always a numbers game. Miguel Franco shows us new ways to stimulate clients who have lost their motivation as well as a way to get new clients into shape by bringing the gym home to them. Ileana Stefanescu details an exciting new product from a renowned Swedish health institution that is used to measure fat free mass and body fat percentage. Also look for an excerpt from Neuro-Mass the much-anticipated book from Jon Bruney. Edwin Adams returns with the fifth and final entry in client Mitch s transformation series. Steve Downs explains the physiological side of building bulging biceps and from our friends and associates at the NSCA Nick Clayton gives us an eloquent piece on youth training. When you open the issue on your desktop check out the buttons across the toolbar on top your screen you can toggle the full screen which makes the magazine even more readable. There are also buttons for downloading and printing the entire issue or individual pages. The built-in help guide can tell you everything you need to know just click on the question mark. Want to view the magazine on your tablet or other mobile device Our new format is compatible with most devices so feel free to take us on the go I am very fortunate to be working so closely with some of the top trainers educators researchers and athletes in their respective fields. Whether you are a veteran of the fitness game or have recently decided to try your hand at the business our expert contributors are here for you Al Khoury Editorial Director Walking and exercise By Jayah Faye Paley Using Poles for In 2001 Dragon Door Launched The World s First-Ever Kettlebell Instructor Certification System The RKC--And Ignited a Worldwide Movement... It s Now 2013 and RKC Is Recognized as The Gold Standard for Training Excellence...Discover Why Kettlebells are like weightlifting times ten... If I could ve met Pavel in the early 80s I might have won two gold medals. --DENNIS KOSLOWSKI DC Minneapolis MN Silver and Bronze Olympic Medalist Greco-Roman Wrestling My experience with the workshop was a great insight into my mind and body connection through strength...I really loved Pavel s directness and ability to communicate difficult exercises in such few words. --SHANNON HARTNETT Gym Owner Sausalito CA 9x World Highland Games Champion 3x Word Powerlifting Champion All-Time World Record Holder in the Deadlift (552.5 lbs. 148 bodyweight) Member US Olympic Bobsled Team Pro Football running back San Francisco Scorcherss I was very impressed with the workshop One of the more thorough certifications I have been involved with. A combination of theory and teaching coupled with rugged training and technique practice --CHIP MORTON Cincinnati Bengals Strength and Conditioning Coach Cincinnati OH I m glad I took this weekend to empty my cup because it was expertly filled up again. John and Pavel have refined the single best introduction to safe strength based movement I have seen. It is the best use of the weekend I ve seen yet. The best course I ve attended in the past 5 years. It is sophisticated and raw at the same time much needed in western exercise philosophy Add nothing. Take nothing away. Try to keep the group together as long as possible. You guys are the Rolling Stones . Just keep playing and don t die--that s all you got to do. --GRAY COOK Author of Movement Co-founder FMS Physical Therapist Chatham VA big difference is truth. RKC teaches and lives by the truth. No big words and making stuff up to sound important. Material is excellent never had so much. --DONNIE THOMPSON Professional Powerlifter Health Club Owner Columbia SC 3rd highest powerlifting total in history WPO-SHW World Champion Arnold Classic winner The training was one of the most intense enjoyable and rewarding educational experiences I ve ever been through. The quality of instruction was first-rate and the quantity.... I ll be digesting all the info for a long time. These people are amazing. Very smart very accomplished very serious.... Yet with a great sense of humor. It was without a doubt the best practical instruction I ve ever had. Take the kettlebells away and it was still the best (and simplest ) explanation of training I ve ever been exposed to. Simple not easy. --STEVE MILLES Gym owner Muay Thai trainer New York City NY Intercontinental Champion (Welterweight) US Muay Thai Association US Champion (Welterweight and Jr. Middleweight) World Kickboxing Association Of all the strength and conditioning seminars I ve taken in the last ten years this makes the most sense to me. If you want usable strength and endurance KBs are the way to go As a strength coach I see how all the concepts taught here relate to everything I do in the weight room. --JOSE VAZQUEZ Texas Rangers Strength Coach Arlington TX This past weekend was one of the greatest moments in my training career. It made me believe in my ability more. --ELLEN STEIN Personal Trainer Brooklyn NY 6x IPF Masters World Powerlifting Champion CALL NOW 1-800-899-5111 OR VISIT workshops Using two poles can help your clients achieve maintain and even regain mobility. As humans we spend a whole year learning to walk then we spend about 20 years reveling and rejoicing with movement as we leap and hop through life. We spend the next 20 30 or 50 years losing that glorious movement. Look at your 50-something clients are they walking old Now imagine you had a magic pill that could restore that youthful attitude to your clients stride and could actually reverse your clients aging process would that be marketable The magic is that this is a one-time pill that is it is a simple investment in a good quality pair of poles and the time to learn the basic training. Learning to use two poles provides lifelong benefits and involves basic skills that all hikers and walkers will at some point appreciate. But you don t have to be a regular wanderer or an avid trekker to enjoy the benefits of this exercise. Active walking is a cardiovascular exercise that can be enjoyed by anyone whenever one pleases. Open your door and take a pole walk Add energy power fat burning attitude and improved whole body movement to regular walking. There are at least as many great hiking and walking spots as there are gyms. When you walk or hike with poles the world is your gym It is a great way to burn calories and strengthen muscles and bone density. Adding poles to the mix increases the efficiency of the movement as well as its positive returns. As we age we seek to improve our quality of life through fitness and nutrition. There are those however whose problems stem from more than the aging process - clients with mild to moderate mobility issues. For those preparing for or recovering from joint surgery as well as those with Parkinson s MS peripheral neuropathy arthritis diabetes some of the most basic traditional exercises may be difficult or even dangerous. This article also addresses the needs of those clients who need a higher level of care when exercising but pole walking can benefit people of any level of health or age group. Just in time for this first article in a series DSW Fitness is releasing a new course designed to help trainers and therapists teach their mobilitychallenged clients and patients pole walking skills. Our natural arm-swing movement is one of the best ways to engage healthy spinal rotation and muscle recruitment. Non-optimal use can involve repetitive movement of the joints which can cause stress or strain. The death grip for example can cause tension in the hand wrist elbow shoulder and neck. It s easy to master the use of poles which involve natural movement but improper use can negate some of the many benefits and cause injury. Whether you re age 30 or 90 Without focused attention optimal use of poles provides gravity acts the spine compresses significant benefits. In this first and we get shorter. article we will discuss Using poles for exercise - for both walking and hiking - can actually enable spinal Why Poles elongation. Optimal use of poles Why Optimal Use recruits large core muscles Benefits of Learning including the latissimus dorsi Optimal Use of Poles for lower trapezius and oblique Hiking Walking Mobility muscles. Muscles need to be & Exercise engaged to grow stronger and Three Goals with Poles the poles stimulate many muscle Common Mistakes groups. Using poles enables us to Pole Etiquette for Hikers work our upper as well as lower FAQs body muscles to help preserve our joints and stave off shrinking Three Goals with Poles When learning to use poles for mobility we focus on three benefits Balance and stability. Improving and enabling mindfulness which improves function and safety in all areas of movement. Using the whole body while walking relearning that aged 20-something movement. When using trekking poles for hiking optimal use enables three terrain-based goals On flat terrain we achieve whole body exercise or ease of use. Improved power and endurance on uphill. Why Poles Our natural walking pattern is a reciprocal gait - the diagonal pattern of opposite arm and leg which enables spinal rotation. This spinal rotation feels good and is good for the whole body. As we age spine function diminishes. Why Optimal Use Imagine being able to WD-40 your vertebrae. Optimal use of poles is key to achieving their many benefits. On downhill terrain reduce joint stress. Our clients learn how to use their muscles to help preserve their joints. It s that simple. Learning optimal use will enable you to achieve these goals. Common Mistakes Incorrect use of straps. (AdventureBuddies blog has a three minute video on how to adjust and use straps) Non-optimal pole length. (see FAQs below) Incurring joint stress vs. muscle recruitment strengthening. Inappropriate pole etiquette. (see below) Pole Etiquette for Hikers Why don t some people want to hike with pole users Pole users please be aware and considerate Victims of pole improprieties Rather than shunning all pole users let s educate them. Here are some tips Poles are not swords and should not be waved around. Know where your pole tips are at all times. Keep a safe distance between hikers. If a pole hiker is crowding you step aside and let this unaware pole user pass. On steep uphill hikes poles can slip backwards and injure those behind. On steep descents allow extra space especially in front. If someone behind you is reaching forward with their poles a sharp tip could jab your Achilles tendon. Just step aside and let the pole user (who in this case is using non-optimal technique) pass. People who lay their poles on the ground in the middle of the trail are at risk of having their poles stepped on tripped on or broken. Carry your rubber tips with you at all times. If you encounter pavement using rubber tips will save your tips and be way less noisy. Noisy poles can be very annoying. Rubber tips can also protect fragile surfaces. Hiking Pole FAQs The following are some of the most frequently asked questions we get from pole users and people who are considering using poles for hiking walking exercise and mobility I know how to walk so I can use poles without any instruction right We weren t born knowing how to walk. We learned step-bystep until we could crawl walk and run. So yes anyone can pick up poles and reduce knee stress but that stress and energy has to go somewhere. W NO BLE ILA AVA 13 20 From NAL RSO G PE IN AIN TR AL NU AN ATTENTION FITNESS ENTHUSIASTS Keep up-to-date with the latest trends in diet exercise nutrition and bodybuilding THE ANNUAL gives you a 120-page textbook opportunity to work more closely with your trainer clients and increase your results. If you do NOT have a personal trainer LET US BE YOUR PERSONAL TRAINER Brought to you by Fitness Trainer Publishing Corporation Personal Training Annual gives you insights from leading authorities like Dr. Edwin Adams A.G. Flores Gene Bruno Patrick Netter Dr.Jerome Greenberg Albert Khoury Jackie Keller Mary Gillis and Nicole Glor (Fitness Expert on Fox and Friends and Star of 7 Fitness DVDs ) Only 2.50 will introduce you to a whole new world of fitness and health Order what personal trainers around the world are reading and get a head start on the new year s trends in supplements diet exercise and bodybuilding routines. Brought to you online in digital format Personal Training Annual will be your fitness companion and guide you through the new year and for many years to come To purchase your copy of Personal Training Annual please visit t filter category fitness With non-optimal technique we risk injury and strain because that stored knee stress can transfer to the fragile joints of the hand wrist shoulder or neck. With optimal pole technique the energy goes to the core muscles of your body. Optimal technique enables you to use strong core muscles to help preserve and protect your joints. Other FAQs and Online Resources What kind of poles should I buy - See the Product Recommendations page on http - You can complete the consultation form for free personalized recommendations. How long should I adjust my poles and why - AdventureBuddies Blog has a comprehensive discussion on adjusting poles. - Search the DVD Updates section. http blog. Which is better one pole or two Using two poles enables you to use your whole body while walking or hiking. Using one pole is like a cane it can give you a little extra stability but at a cost. No matter how careful you are using just one side of your body can create and even reinforce imbalance. When you go downhill gravity creates load in your knees. Using one pole can relieve some of this pressure but it usually involves twisting and can create torque on your spine and potential stress in your shoulder and wrist joints. Using two poles - with optimal technique - strengthens upper body muscles and achieves both spinal rotation and elongation which is very healthy for the spine. Going downhill you bilaterally recruit your upper body muscles including pectorals rectus abdominis and biceps. You ll notice better balance and power. Because you re using more muscles you ll notice you have more endurance but you will feel less exertion Jayah Faye Paley is a fitness and wellness educator she presents hiking walking and fitness seminars for national and state park associations and health related organizations around the country. Jayah an AFAA & ACE-certified Personal Trainer and is the creator of comprehensive training on how to use poles which includes two award-winning DVDs. For over 15 years she has trained people of all ages abilities and physical conditions as well as hikers athletes trainers and physical therapists how to use poles to achieve regain and maintain mobility for hiking and walking. Jayah s website - helps people demystify the pole learning and selection process. She has authored and delivers courses which provide continuing education credits so other personal trainers and therapists can learn how to help people use poles for mobility and exercise. Jayah is a breast cancer survivor she has and manages lymphedema. She is the co-founder of the Lymphedema Education Exercise & Prevention Group at California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco. Specialized Training & Continuing Education Course for Trainers POLES for Balance Mobility & Walking Inspire your aging and mobility-challenged clients with vital life-long skills that will help them remain active and to maintain quality of life. Benefits of Learning Optimal Use of POLES Achieve Maintain Even Regain Mobility Improve Posture Endurance & Confidence Facilitate a more rhythmic and fluid gait Reduce fall risk Strengthen the upper body muscles which helps preserve the joints Burn more calories whiles walking promotes weight loss Prepare for or recover more quickly from joint replacement surgery Using the whole body while walking restores function and movement to the spine and the entire structure. This training has been very beneficial to my patients many have been able to return to activities they thought were lost to them forever. Diane Kern Physical Therapist Presentation is clear and well organized. Participation of real clients helps accessibility. Pacing of examples and suggestions for practice are lively and realistic. Lucy R. Ferguson PhD Professor of Psychology Emeritus This course provides comprehensive and well organized information and guidance needed for trainers to successfully engage inspire and teach their clients to competently use poles in a safe and effective manner. Jayah has done a wonderful job of helping trainers to be proactive and holistic in their approach to training clients. Brenda M.Goodwin MBA Executive Coach This course will positively impact those with limited mobility. It could give someone their lives back or at worst get them exercising again. Steven Luibrand BS Kinesiology Jayah has obviously spent many years perfecting this teaching sequence. I have used the information successfully with a number of clients. Judith C. Dambowic Physical Therapist This course is very well taught and planned. Personal trainers will benefit greatly from learning how to teach clients to properly use poles. Susan Miller RN Feldenkrais Teacher To find out more information or to order this course visit Education Page Continuing Education ACE 0.50 ACSM 5.00 AEA 2.50 AFPA 5.00 BCRPA 5.00 CI 5.00 COPS-KT .50 ISSA 5.00 NAFC 0.50 NASN NCSF NETA NFPT NSPA SFA USAT W.I.T.S. 0.50 2.50 5.00 1.00 5.00 0.50 5.00 5.00 Photo by nikos Ask anyone to make a muscle and what do they invariably show you Any guy - or gal for that matter - will promptly roll up their sleeve and strike a bicep pose. They certainly don t show their enormous quads nor spread their doorway-wide lats - even if they have them Ask that simple question and you ll always get that same answer. In truth any lifter with half a brain knows that all muscles are important it s impossible to concentrate on just one group and build a physique with any aesthetic quality. The fact of the matter is that the muscular sum is greater than all the individual parts. Still however possessing peaked baseball-like biceps is something most anyone in the gym desires. Isolating the use of your biceps from the rest of your arm muscles is not actually possible in training. Every curl involves all the muscles that flex or bend your elbow as well as those in your forearm hand and even shoulder which helps with Photo by PoWershots PhotograPhy stability. Still having some knowledge about the intricacies of the anterior (front) portion of your upper arm will help you to identify strengths and weaknesses in your genetic structure and then to train to achieve aesthetic perfection. For starters we all know that performing curls is the only way to build the biceps and supporting musculature. But the angle at which the arm is relative to the shoulder and torso has a great influence on the area of the muscle working the hardest it also has a significant effect on leverage. And don t forget that leverage is key to maximizing the effectiveness of a particular exercise - as long as you know how to use it correctly. This means you can perform curls with your upper arms at your sides (barbell curls) with your arms forward of your torso (preacher curls) or behind it (45-degree incline dumbbell curls). The leverage changes between these exercises even if you don t twist your arms. Preachers tend to be felt more in the lower part of the biceps because the upper portion which originates in the shoulder is contracted simply by getting into the exercise position. A tightened muscle doesn t contract as easily as one that is stretched so the leverage disadvantage goes to the lower portion closer to the insertion at the elbow. Hence it is felt to a greater degree there. In the opposite realm with your arms hanging backwards during incline curls the origins of the biceps which are in the shoulders are stretched so you will probably feel the contraction more in the upper ball part of the biceps during this exercise. This is why it is important to have variety in your arm-building workout program. You also have to think about anatomy as the way muscles are formed has a specific effect on leverage depending on how they are stressed. In addition gravity plays a significant role. Barbells or dumbbells are weighted because of gravity s effect but this resistance is always linear that is up and down. As you perform a barbell curl for instance the resistance you feel is affected by the moment arm the distance between the resistance and the joint that s moving. The longer the moment leverage arm the greater the resistance and the harder the exercise becomes. So if you start a barbell curl with your arms at your sides there is really little resistance brought to the biceps because the weight is directly below the joint. As you begin to curl the bar feels heavier even if its actual weight never changes. At the mid-point with your arms bent at 90 degrees the bar feels heaviest this is due to the long distance between the resistance and the elbow joint. As you continue it actually lessens due to the moment arm becoming shorter - until you finish with the weight almost directly over your elbows at the top where there s less stress on the muscle. The use of cables and machines alters the natural effects of gravity thereby making you feel nearly equal stimulation at multiple points in the exercise from start to finish. This is another reason that variety is critical for muscle building. Photo by nikos Getting back to anatomy there are three basic muscles at work when you bend your elbows biceps brachii brachialis anticus & brachioradialis. These are described below along with specific movements that affect them more directly. The bottom line is that to build rock solid peaked and bulging upper arms you have to use your head as much as your effort. To get the most from your effort there are critical points that should govern your training Photo by PoWershots PhotograPhy Photo by PoWershots PhotograPhy Work your biceps with twisting curls. The biceps brachii muscle originates within the shoulder joint and inserts into the forearm bones crossing both the elbow and shoulder joints. This muscle not only enables you to bend your elbow it also twists your wrist inward which is called supination. This is why twisting dumbbell curls are important they involve both biceps-related motions in one exercise. 1. Work the brachialis with concentration curls. The brachialis is positioned beneath the bottom of the biceps. This muscle assists the biceps to flex bend the elbow but is activated to a greater extent when the palm remains facing upwards during the entire curl (no wrist twisting). As a result barbell curls are a necessity in your arm program. However due to positioning and leverage factors dumbbell concentration and curl bar preacher curls are even more important. 2. Photo by nikos Work the brachioradialis with hammer curls. The brachioradialis is the muscle that is visible at the side of your arm across your elbow and beside the lower edge of your triceps. This muscle helps flex the elbow but works its hardest when your thumbs are pointed 3. forward upward at all times as in hammer curls. Although most people consider this a forearm exercise the fact is that the brachioradialis helps with curling strength and it increases circumference of the upper arm so don t neglect this exercise. Put all this together and you have enough information to create awesome upper arms. If you lack a peak use greater focus on twisting curls and squeeze hard at the top for 2-4 seconds to accentuate the contraction. If you have a longer gap between your biceps and your elbow as is often the case with guys possessing high bicep peaks you can increase overall arm mass and lessen the gap by including more preacher and concentration curls. Lastly to add solid mass to your outer arm and really bolster your forearms beside your elbow utilize extra hammer curls. As stated earlier a sensible arm workout includes different angles and multiple exercises. You needn t do dozens of sets but if you target areas where you are lacking and try to improve the overall picture of your socalled biceps which you now know constitute three muscles in each arm 6-10 sets max of arm flexion exercises should be all you need. remember Photo by PoWershots PhotograPhy knowledge is power. so to build great biceps use your head D-B D-BOL METHADROSTENOLTM WINNI-V CYCLOSTANOZOLTM Since its introduction in early 2001 D-BOL has fast become the most popular oral pro-anabolic ever available D-BOL is the most popular MASS building oral on the market It has a special formulation containing methadrostenolTM that may exert a pronounced ergogenic action in the body after oral administration similar to those experienced by users of methandrostenoloneTM. MethandrostenoloneTM is the most popular oral anabolic steroid currently used today. D-BOL however lacks the c17 alpha alkylated configuration which may comparatively lower the risks of certain associated side effects. 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Product claims made regarding ergogenic benefit are based on the subjective results of users reported in non-controlled conditions. Individual results may vary. Use in conjunction with a well balanced diet and intense bodybuilding exercise program. The Internet domain name is representative of non-prescription products that may enhance blood levels of steroid hormones in the body. SDI LABS does not condone the illegal use and or possession of anabolic steroids or other controlled substances. Use of pro-anabolic products is strictly limited to healthy men above the age of 18. COM REAL TESTIMONIALS Dear SDI-LABS One week into the cycle and my muscles feel so full tight hard and pumped after my work out... It literally felt like they would explode Dan M Bronx NY Dear SDI-LABS Please send 4 more bottles of D-BOL... I am absolutely shocked at the intense muscle growth I am experiencing from your products George A Boynton Beach FL LEGALSTEROIDS By Nick Clayton Personal Training Manager National Strength and Conditioning Association As personal trainers we constantly look to increase our revenue and hours booked while also retaining the freedom to organize and structure our schedule to maintain consistency. A focus on small group training has recently hit the industry and an ever-growing segment within this market is youth training. In this article I will provide key program design and safety tips as well as an example on how to capitalize on this market. resistance training form healthy habits and reduce injury risk. (NSCA Members can access this and hundreds of related articles at The key to the above benefits as with any exercise program is proper programming and execution of exercise technique. Research supports the use of plyometric training for adolescents which has been shown to improve movement safe and effective for adolescents According to the National Strength and Conditioning Association s (NSCA) Position Statement on Youth Resistance Training a properly designed and supervised resistance training program is relatively safe can improve health and fitness motor skills well-being efficiency functional ability and decrease sports-related injuries in young athletes. If you have any doubts that children should use plyometrics spend 10 minutes watching them on the playground or playing sports-- virtually every movement can be defined as plyometric in nature. Relative refers to the general injury risk inherent in physical activity unrelated to age. but doesn t strength training damage unsealed growth plates Damage to the growth plates in adolescents is possible but no injury to the growth cartilage has been reported in any youth resistance training research study and no evidence suggests that resistance training will negatively impact growth and maturation during childhood. Most reported injuries to growth cartilage in youth were attributed to improper lifting technique lack of progression maximal lifts or lack of qualified adult supervision. Smart researchbased training in adolescents yields smart results. Dumb training will always yield dumb results regardless of client age. Speed Agility and Quickness (SAQ). You do not need to be a strength coach to teach SAQ training to adolescents - you just need to do a little extra homework. As with any program coaching cues and programming make the difference between failure and success. The program I ran was 2-3 times per week for six weeks at a cost of 15 per child session. At roughly 10 kids per session I brought in 150 per hour twice the amount I charged for individual personal training sessions. As an additional bonus the children s parents ended up doing a vast amount of marketing and networking for me. I also encouraged parents to attend watch and ask questions. Pre-testing included basic fundamental movements and tests such as the deep squat broad jump and pro-agility. Following the assessment I sent detailed reports to each of the parents providing them not only objective scores but subjective information e.g. specific things I saw that we would work on such as the child s arms coming across their mid-line when sprinting. I also asked the parents to attend the next session as I would give their child specific drills and homework that I expected them to perform simple quick and easy drills to reinforce the desired changes. This small piece of feedback was greatly accepted by the majority of parents. program design recommendations A program that has had repeated success for me especially during the summer months was Youth For advanced groups I incorporated a metabolic conditioning test that included small tire flips agility ladder work and shuttle running. In my experience virtually every young athlete I worked with loved the learning experience especially the tire flipping. saQ program design 1. Stationary lunges with elbow to instep walking lunges with elbow to instep multiplanar lunges with reach add med ball and or balance work. Our primary strength work consisted of squats (bodyweight goblet machine assisted Freemotion Squat ) lunges and assisted pull-ups. Plyometric work consisted of three exercises that addressed the frontal sagittal and transverse planes focused on mechanics rather than intensity and progressed from bilateral to unilateral. Accessory exercises focused on muscle balance and posterior chain work. At the end of the session we ran for conditioning or speed work. Note that these are not the same running intervals with shorter rest periods improves conditioning while working on speed requires full rest. Also note that speed and agility work was emphasized once per week and replaced strength and plyometrics. Keeping in mind that adolescents have relatively short attention spans and desire challenge I programmed different conditioning relay races at the end of each session. The following is a sample relay race that I used team tire flips agility ladders shuttle runs and tennis ball or small medicine ball toss. mobility drills wall running drills. 2. Wall hip and ankle 3. Spiderman spiderman forward backward spiderman with push-up spiderman with push-up forward backward. drills position the young athlete in an athletic stance and on command have him her drop into a squat position and hold for three seconds. Once mastered add reps increase the speed or add a countermovement jump. 4. Landing mechanic Build Your Body To Be Ripped Rugged and Spectacular--With Dragon Door s Best-of-Class RKC Kettlebell The Ultimate Handheld Gym -- Designed for A Lifetime of Hard High-Performance Use... E ven a man of average initial strength can immediately start using the 16kg 35lb kettlebell for two-handed swings and quickly gravitate to one-handed swings followed by jerks cleans and snatches. Within a few weeks you can expect to see spectacular gains in overall strength and conditioning--and for many--significant fat loss. Dragon Door re-introduced kettlebells to the US with the uniquely designed 35lb cast iron kettlebell--and it has remained our most popular kettlebell. Why Let Dragon Door s own satisfied customers tell the story Excellent Quality Unlike other kettlebells I have used Dragon Door is of far superior quality. You name it Dragon Door has got it Where other bells lack Dragon Door kettlebells easily meet if not exceed what a bell is supposed to have in quality Great balance nice thick handle for grip strength and a finish that won t destroy your hands when doing kettlebell exercises. --Barry Adamson Frederick MD and I cannot imagine NOT using them. They have changed my life. --Tracy Ann Mangold Combined Locks WI Dragon Door bells just feel better I purchased this 35lb bell for a friend and as I was carrying it to him I was thinking of ways I could keep it for myself. Everything about this bell is superior to other brands. The finish is the perfect balance of smooth and rough. The handle is ample in both girth and width even for a 35 lb bell and the shape dimensions make overhead work so much more comfortable. There is a clear and noticeable difference between Dragon Door bells and others. Now I am looking to replace my cheap bells with Dragon Door s. On a related note my friend is thrilled with his bell. --Raphael Sydnor Woodberry Forest VA who manufacture kettlebells and it I have yet to read a negative review of the kettlebells sold by Dragon Door. I have both the 35 and 44 lbs KBs and I expect to receive a 53 lbs KB from Dragon Door by next week. And as I gain in strength and proficiency I will likely order the 72 lbs KB. If you like to be challenged physically and enjoy pushing yourself then buy a Russian Kettlebell and start swinging --Mike Davis Newman CA New Dragon Door Bells-- Best Ever Just received a new e-coat 16 yesterday. Perfect balance perfect texturing non-slip paint and absolutely seamless. --Daniel Fazzari Carson City NV Dragon Door Kettlebells The Real Deal The differences between Dragon Door s authentic Russian kettlebell and the inferior one which I had purchased earlier at a local big box sports store are astounding The Dragon Door design and quality are clearly superior and your kettlebell just feels right in my hand. There is absolutely no comparison (and yes I returned the substandard hunk of iron to the big box store for a credit as soon as I received your kettlebell). I look forward to purchasing a heavier kettlebell from as soon as I master the 16kg weight --Stephen Williams Arlington VA Continually Impressed Dragon Door never fails to impress with their quality service and products. I bought the 16kg last month and since adding it to my kettlebell arsenal I am seeing huge improvement from the heavier weight. I have larger hands for a woman so the handle on the 16kg fits my hands perfectly and it feels great...This is my fifth month using kettlebells Made for Heavy-Duty Use These kettlebells are definitely made for heavyduty use They are heftier than they appear and the centrifugal force generated while swinging single or two-handed requires correct form. I have read numerous online reviews of different companies CALL NOW 1-800-899-5111 OR VISIT summary Training young athletes correctly is both safe and effective and can set positive associations with physical activity that last a lifetime. Personal trainers should focus on basic movement skills and not spend too much time specializing on single-sport specificity. While most trainers want to train highlevel athletes training adolescents can prove both financially rewarding financially and enjoyable nick clayTon is the Personal Training Manager at the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA). He has 15 years of experience as a personal trainer and strength coach. He earned a Master s degree in Exercise Science as well as a MBA from the University of Florida. OMEGA STRONG OMEGA STRONG is an ideal fish oil supplement for advanced athletes and workout enthusiasts. Its super purity and potency helps you maximize recovery and it also supports a healthy inflammatory response to training as well as providing an enhancement to cardiovascular health and overall performance. MHP s OMEGA STRONG is more than three times as concentrated in omega-3 fatty acids as traditional fish oil supplements. Each serving contains an equivalent amount of omega-3s to one serving of wild cooked salmon. OMEGA STRONG is tested by an independent laboratory to ensure that it is potent pure and fresh. Plus the softgel capsules bear no fishy smell. For information log on to NEURO-MASS Success or failure in the quest for muscle mass is dependent on choosing the right path. Jon Bruney s Neuro-Mass system provides the fastest means for adding slabs of functional muscle to your frame. That s right - functional muscle... SMART muscle. Smart muscle is muscle that can multitask. Neuro-Mass will not only increase your frame but also turbocharge your strength and athleticism. Everyone wants to add muscle but we all know that it s no easy task. Misinformation abounds as to how exactly this is accomplished. Neuro-Mass removes the confusion by giving you the exact protocols to create an impressive athletic physique. The Neuro-Mass system combines the best kettlebell resistance and bodyweight exercises with a new cutting-edge training method called Neuro-Sets. These Neuro-Sets create RAPID physique transformation. While most training programs focus on just one approach to create growth Neuro-Mass uses multiple stressors to create a BIGGER and BETTER body. neuro-mass makes the body smarter by Teaching the nervous system to recruit more muscle fibers. 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It also benefits bones joints connective tissue hair skin nails mood energy and overall body balance. IsoPLUSTM is designed with digestive enzymes low fat low carbs and mixes instantly in water or milk. It is sweetened with Stevia and contains no aspartame. IsoPLUSTM tastes great and will be available by June. Definitely worth the weight RE7 A new category of beverage has hit store shelves in Western Canada Quebec and a few states in the U.S. RE7 focuses on the pure fundamentals of optimal performance as well as the body s ability to adapt and recover more efficiently with natural pure elements such as the 12 vitamins and minerals that were specifically combined to gain the desired best results. RE7 contains no caffeine no fructose or corn syrups and no artificial sweeteners it is sweetened with the natural stevia leaf. RE7 helps improve your body s recovery from the mental physical and environmental stresses put on the body as it helps in maintaining immune function. Calcium is a pivotal electrolyte for muscle contraction. High protein diets as consumed by many athletes can increase urinary calcium loss and as much as 250 mg of calcium can be lost in perspiration during a single exercise session. Therefore post-exercise recovery is a time when calcium needs are at their highest one of the most important objectives of RE7 is to restore calcium stores at least to pre-exercise levels so that the body can effectively recover. It is important that calcium replenishment be accomplished in a way that helps restore calcium while also normalizing pH. RE7 contains three specific types of calcium that work together in accomplishing RE7 s recovery effects. The effects of vitamin D on muscle development are well documented and its importance is well characterized. Some important reasons for athletes to have optimal vitamin D status include regulated calcium absorption bone growth calcium-mediated muscle action muscular strength stability and balance and reduction of inflammation in muscles. The calcium and vitamin D combination alone are key components to proper recovery. As athletes we can feed ourselves the best foods in the world but if our bodies are not in a balanced pH state then our bodies must work extra hard to digest that food and use its nutrients to its full benefit. Think of it this way if you put chemically treated or dirty water in a fish tank those fish are going to suffer or die. Let s take extra care of our bodies and live world-class lives For more information on RE7 you can visit If you would like to carry RE7 in your gym health club or training center email mattpark DRAGON DOOR S PREMIUM RKC KETTLEBELLS Dragon Door s premium RKC kettlebells are engineered for a lifetime of rugged use by the most demanding of professionals. Everything about this bell is superior to other brands. The finish combines the perfect balance of smooth and rough. The handle is ample in both girth and width even for a 35 lb. bell and the shape dimensions make overhead work much more comfortable. There is a clear and noticeable difference between Dragon Door bells and others. The Dragon Door design and quality are clearly superior and the kettlebell just feels right in the hand. We recommend you experience the difference for yourself. Find Dragon Door s RKC kettlebells on X-FIT-TRAINER X-FIT TRAINER from MHP is the ultimate pre-workout formula TRAINER contains allnatural high-powered ingredients for the ultimate high intensity workouts. TRAINER is formulated to boost energy levels up to 79% and buffer lactic acid so you can train faster and harder. It can help enhance strength gains up to 45%. 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To learn more about Champion s exciting new brand visit or check out Champion Nutrition USA on Facebook note These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose treat cure or prevent any disease. the game-changing new title from Jon bruney an excerpt from neuro-mass The Double Kettlebell Lateral Step Squat Lateral movement is a key to developing smart mass. Most athletic competitions require some form of lateral movement. This exercise also encourages hip mobility body awareness and balance. double kettlebell lateral step squat beginning position To begin clean the bells into the rack position. With elbows tight to the body bring the hands together so that the bells are resting on the chest. The feet are set slightly inside the shoulder length apart. Inhale with maximum pressurization raise the right foot around six inches in the air while simultaneously pushing laterally with the left foot. Absorb the impact with right foot as you pull yourself down into the squat position. Now with chest high and tensed glutes drive upwards and laterally by pushing off of the right foot. The right foot will come off the ground again around six inches as you are returning to the starting position. Remember to power breath to keep tension on the core. Now repeat the movement in the opposite direction. double kettlebell lateral movement This exercise takes some time to master. Performance point When moving laterally to the right make sure that the left foot stays planted. When moving laterally to the left the right foot should stay planted. The double kettlebell lateral step squat can take your body to new levels of athleticism. double kettlebell lateral step squat bottom position double kettlebell lateral step squat return action double kettlebell lateral step squat finishing position The Double Kettlebell Front Elevation Lunge For this exercise you will need a step that is six to ten inches in height. The front foot will be placed on the step increasing the range of motion stretch and muscle recruitment. Place the step two or more feet in front of your body. Clean two kettlebells into the rack position. The elbows should be tight against the sides of the body while the bells rest on the chest. Step forward so that one foot is resting on the platform. The front foot should be in complete contact with the step. The rear heel will be off the floor. The front knee is partially bent. Now inhale and create tension and pressure within the body. Lower the body toward the floor. To ascend push hard with the elevated foot driving back up to the starting position. Remember to power breathe on the way up. double kettlebell front elevation lunge beginning position double kettlebell front elevation lunge bottom position Performance points Make sure to keep the back straight during this exercise. Fight the urge to lean forward. Finish all the repetitions on one leg before switching to the other leg. Because of the extreme range of motion involved in this exercise you should use lighter kettlebells. double kettlebell front elevation lunge finish position The Double Kettlebell Rear Elevation Lunge Just as in the previous exercise you will need a step or platform six to ten inches in height. This movement really taxes the quads. Place the step behind you. Clean the kettlebells into the proper rack position. Lift one foot behind you until it is in contact with the top of the step. The heel of the elevated foot should not be touching the step. Pushing off with the rear foot step the front foot forward. The knee of the front leg should be partially bent. This is the beginning position of the exercise. double kettlebell rear elevation lunge beginning position Performance points Keep your chest high and back straight. Complete all of the required repetitions on one leg before switching to the other leg. The balance and range of motion make this a very challenging exercise. It would be wise to use a lighter pair of kettlebells. double kettlebell rear elevation lunge bottom position double kettlebell rear elevation lunge finish position The Double Kettlebell Wide Squat Clean a pair of kettlebells to the rack position. Now separate your feet so that they are wider than shoulder width apart. Your toes should be slightly pointed outward. Inhale and create tension and pressurize the core. Actively pull yourself into the bottom position of the squat. Pause for a moment then squeeze the glutes hard as you drive up into the starting position. Remember to power breathe on the way up. double kettlebell wide squat beginning position Neuro-Mass by Jon Bruney Release date august 2013. Publisher Dragon Door Publications http Attention All Personal Trainers guess do not assess Part One By John Paul Catanzaro Much like my dietary advice this article may go against the grain so to speak. Every personal trainer is taught that they must conduct a thorough assessment of their clients the more information they gather the better. Well after 17 years in this business I do far less assessing and far more guessing not to be different but to be efficient. I have found many similar patterns that exist among individuals and through the years I have developed systems of training that produce reproducible results. Where the client fits into these systems depends on his or her individual needs and goals. Oftentimes assessments can be conducted through the training process rather than as a separate procedure. This can save the client time and money and can actually lead to better results. Not everyone is numbersoriented to begin with. Forcing an assessment on a prospect can be quite disturbing to those it is performed on. In fact many gyms do this on purpose to show the potential client how out of shape they are and how much they need personal training. It s a dirty little sales trick. I ve found that most sedentary individuals do not care much where they stand compared to others they just want to get better themselves. Really the whole practice of assessment leads to neuroticism - clients concentrate on the outcome rather than the process. Instead we should encourage clients to focus on self-improvement or relative results rather than how they stack up against the norms. I do think that it is useful to generate a baseline with regards to body composition. Anthropometric measurements should be taken initially but the extent of these measurements will depend on the individual. The instant a client walks through my door I know how I will proceed to measure him or her. For sedentary individuals their body mass index (BMI) will dictate the measurements performed as outlined below weight height and six girth measurements (chest waist hip right arm thigh calf) but no skinfolds bmi 30 bmi 25-30 bmi 25 weight height six girth measurements (as above) and five skinfold measurements (triceps biceps subscapular suprailiac calf) weight height 15 girth measurements (neck shoulder chest right arm forearm wrist left arm forearm wrist waist hip right thigh calf left thigh calf) and 13 skinfold measurements (chin cheek pectoral triceps biceps subscapular midaxillary suprailiac umbilical quadriceps hamstring knee calf) For most athletes and active individuals the BMI is not a great scale to use. Many of these individuals would be classified as overweight or obese according to the BMI because as you know it only reflects the quantity not quality of weight per height. For instance take the average linebacker in football they would be considered obese according to BMI criteria but most have low single-digit body fat levels. With these individuals you would perform comprehensive measurements (weight height 15 girth and 13 skinfold measurements) and you would do so on a more frequent basis. postural assessment In the past I spent quite a bit of time assessing posture to the point of taking specific measurements to gauge just how far from ideal an individual is. Today I have a much better method that takes just a few seconds to complete. It involves a camera and three photos of a person front side and back. Of course the individual must wear as little clothing as possible but this method serves two purposes a) It displays the before and after changes that occur in body composition. b) It displays the before and after changes in posture. gives you a decent reading of upper body and core strength for the general population. You can use a power cage or Smith machine and start with the bar fairly high. Keep lowering the bar by one notch until the client is unable to perform the exercise with proper form. Record the (Check out the Posture height which can then be used Checklist in my article as a benchmark. Another reason Women s Posture from that I am not such a huge fan of a Man s Perspective. You push-ups is that the movement can find it on my www. further encourages poor posture with many people. Why do we so website.) often test pushing strength but This method is far more efficient not pulling strength for both you and the client and in my opinion gives you more sIT-ANd-REACH information in the end. Instead TEsT This test does not really of showing clients a bunch tell us anything. If you review the of numbers that they do not classic text Muscles Testing & understand you can simply show Function by Kendall McCreary them the results of their hard work and Provance (1993) you ll notice through the photos. A picture is that many different strategies are used when one tries to touch worth a thousand words their toes some accomplish the task using their flexible Here in Canada a popular backs others with flexible method of testing fitness levels hamstrings not to mention involves the Canadian Physical limb-length discrepancies that Activity Fitness & Lifestyle exist among individuals and so Appraisal (known as the on. Furthermore there is a low CPAFLA). Let s review some of correlation between static and the tests used in the CPAFLA dynamic flexibility as I discuss in my Stretch for Strength online PUsH-UPs First off this is video presentation available at a muscular endurance test not a true test of strength and no Flexibility is join t specific we matter how you try to standardize are not testing overall flexibility the test the reality is that and we are not solely testing hip most out-of-shape individuals flexibility since the back and perform it terribly A push-away other variables come in to play. is a much better option that For the latter simply lay a grid pattern over the photos this can be done on your computer with any paint program or you can print the photos and place a transparent stencil over them. That should give you all the information you need. fitness testing Every trainer should have this DVD in their library. Dr. Ken Kinakin DC CSCS CPT So what are we truly measuring during the sit-and-reach test It s interesting how every single person with whom I ve performed this test has improved over time without doing much aerobic work at all. Most have improved through strength training alone. I m a big fan of unilateral movements during the initial phases of training to improve left-right symmetry. The step-up is one of those movements and I believe that it contributes to success on the step aerobic test. To support my theory here is an excerpt from the book Body by Science by Dr. Doug McGuff and John Little (2009) sTEP AEROBIC TEsT Another pertinent example of the limited specificity of aerobic exercise occurred when I was in the Air Force in Ohio. The Air Force had these minimal fitness requirements that you had to meet every year and the powers that be devised this silly formula for using an ergometer exercise bicycle to back-calculate your VO2 max based on your heart rate at a certain workload. Well in my group there were a couple of people who were competitive 10k and marathon runners who thought Oh my aerobic fitness is great. I ll just show up and do the test. We also had an overweight and deconditioned fellow take part in the test who was very smart. In the two weeks leading up to when we had to have this test done he went over to the gym every day after work and used the exact bicycle that was going to be used in the testing he practiced his cycling against exactly the resistance that was going to be used for the testing for the exact amount of time that the test would take. He got the highest score of anyone and the two competitive runners who were supposedly extraordinarily aerobically fit failed the test. The reason for this outcome was that the overweight fellow realized that what you had to do was train for the test in exactly the same way that you would be tested. You don t for instance go into a math test having studied only English beforehand and he made that connection. As a result an obese and deconditioned fellow just by practicing the test passed it with flying colors whereas the people who believed that they already had this central cardiovascular adaptation and would ace it actually failed it. All they had gained through their efforts was a specific motor skill set or metabolic adaptation for running that did not transfer onto the bicycle. References Kendall F.P. McCreary E.K. and Provance P.G. Muscles Testing and Function. 4th ed. Baltimore MD Williams & Wilkins. 1993. McGuff D. and Little J. Body by Science A Research-Based Program for Strength Training Body building and Complete Fitness in 12 Minutes a Week. New York NY McGraw-Hill. 2009. Tumminello N. Use this Simple Knee Assessment Before You Squat or Lunge Retrieved from http 2012 02 usethis- simple-knee-assessmentbefore-you-squat-or-lunge . 2012 The Elite Trainer Strength Training for the Serious Professional is a synthesis of the very latest thinking in strength training and an indispensable guide to developing individualized programs for your clients. The book features 55 programs dozens of training methods and cutting-edge techniques and over 100 exercise illustrations. Pick up your copy today at http wp. Editor s Note In our next issue we will learn more about John Paul s unique methods of assessment testing with a look at functional assessments and other diagnostics. The author will also review some simple solutions that personal trainers can take without extensive testing. John Paul catanzaro BSc Kin CSEP-CEP is a Professional Member of the Ontario Kinesiology Association and a CSEP Certified Exercise Physiologist with a Specialized Honors Bachelor of Science degree in Kinesiology and Health Science. He owns and operates a private facility in Richmond Hill Ontario providing training and nutritional consulting services. John Paul has authored a book The Elite Trainer (2011) and has released two DVDs Stretching for Strengthening (2003) and Warm-Up to Strength Training (2005) see the full page ad in this issue. His works have sold worldwide been featured in several magazines and have been endorsed by many leading experts. For additional information visit his website at or call 905-780-9908. Providing a More CoMPlete integrated By Ileana stefanescu Body CoMPosition assessMent Director of Education Health Profile Institute O ne of the most important and challenging aspects of physical training is determining the percentage of a client s fatfree mass and body fat. This measurement is the compass you use to chart an effective training regimen to help your clients achieve their fitness goals. It is challenging because there are a wide variety of methods to use - all of which vary in their accuracy invasiveness and ease of use. Now there s a new tool you can use to measure clients fatfree mass and body fat percentage that s fast accurate noninvasive portable affordable intuitive and backed by more than three decades of research the Integrated Body Composition Assessment Tool (IBC) from Health Profile Institute (HPI). Health Profile Institute U.S. is the American branch of this industry-leading Swedish company which has more than 30 years of experience in health and fitness assessment education and research based on the latest technology. IBC was developed as a joint effort between renowned professors of physiology from Sweden and the U.S. along with the Exercise Physiology Lab of the University of Las Vegas Nevada (UNLV). Today you can use this advanced and practical tool to guide your clients toward higher levels of fitness. the swedish ConneCtion Acclaimed Swedish Professor of Physiology Wilhelm von D beln had long studied the relationship between skeletal mass height weight body fat percentage and overall health. The connection between these measurements and fat-free body mass is expressed by the following formula FFM 15.1(H2 x R x F x 100)0.712 H R F height in meters the sum of the right and left radioulnar width i.e. wrist joint width the sum of the right and left femoral condyle width i.e. knee joint width stress and satisfaction within his or her personal and professional life. Height and weight have also Measuring been found to be significant Fat-Free Mass factors along with gender. And a CoMParative study perhaps most importantly the amount of exercise a person Scales don t tell the whole performs during an average week story. People who undertake a needs to be considered. cardiovascular and resistance For more than three decades the Swedes - whose country is ranked among the healthiest in the world - have recognized that there s more to an accurate assessment of a person s overall health than just his or her fat-free body mass. Individual health at any given point in a person s life needs to take into account other factors such as age levels of training regimen often become frustrated and demoralized because their efforts don t show up as actual weight loss. Similarly fashion models who look slim and fabulous on magazine covers are often lacking muscle mass a vital component of daily fitness that is also directly related with the overall energy levels. The definition of fat-free mass has also become somewhat clouded but it is based on a simple formula body weight minus fat-free mass equals the amount of fat on a person s body. A standardized representation of body mass according to Professor von D beln is as follows Muscles skeleton Blood skin liveR centRal neRvous systeM otHeR 50% 20% 9% 8% 3% 3% 7% of water that must be filtered chlorinated and kept at a constant temperature all this expensive equipment takes up an entire room and is more suited to a laboratory setting. BOD POD is based on the same principles as underwater weighing using computerized sensors to measure air displaced while a person sits inside a capsule for 20 seconds - again requiring tight swimwear and expensive equipment. Bioelectric Impedance (BIA) requires a small safe electrical signal to pass through the body. The measured impedance of the individual s body is a good indicator of the fat percentage in the body as muscle and fat have a different resistance to the passage of electricity. In this system two footpad electrodes are incorporated into the platform of a precision electronic scale. An individual s measurements are taken while in a standing position with the electrodes in contact with bare feet. At the same time the client holds on to an electrode. BIA results are however highly sensitive to hydration levels and food intake. There are several tests used to determine body fat percentage and fat-free mass. Hydrostatic weighing is regarded as the gold standard among assessment methods. It measures the density of the body by comparing the body s weight in water with its weight on a normal scale. While it is highly accurate it requires subjects to become completely submerged in a tank of water in a swimsuit weighted vest nose clip and mouthpiece for breathing. This method also requires a thousand gallon tank In contrast to all these methods IBC can be performed quickly while clients remain fully dressed in their workout attire and its results depend very little on food or hydration. A study conducted by the UNLV compared the calculation Fast thorough and aCCurate role in determining actual fatfree mass. Duration of exercise what s your tiMe worth is another key component. Exercising for longer periods Unlike laboratory body of time contributes to higher composition tests IBC is non- metabolic rates and enables the invasive highly intuitive and body to keep fat stores from takes fewer than five minutes to of body fat obtained by these methods to the IBC. Statistical analysis revealed that compared to the benchmark accuracy of hydrostatic weighing results were as follows Bod Pod 0.83 Bia 0.72 iBc 0.86 A perfect correlation would yield a result of 1.0. increasing. Combined with age height weight and gender this assessment presents a more complete picture of an individual s overall health. The IBC kit consists of a simple digital caliper for measuring wrists and a tape measure for the waist as well as a flash drive preloaded with the software. The OsteoCaliper has a measuring range of 0-15.24mm complete. The IBC assessment with an accuracy of also considers factors which other 0.0254mm. methods often overlook skeletal frame and the duration of cardiovascular a n d resistance training performed each week. As adults our skeletal measurements remain constant and can play an important The software generates an immediate assessment once the required data fields are completed. Progress can be checked as often as the client wishes without remeasuring wrists another distinct advantage over other tests. The science behind IBC has been widely accepted and utilized across Europe for more than 30 years and now many U.S.-based personal trainers physical therapists health coaches nurses and weight loss specialists are adopting it as well. Given IBC s accuracy compared with other leading evaluation methods along with its portability ease of use and affordability make it a solid step forward in health assessment. The UNLV study concluded that the IBC was a tenable cost-effective alternative for determining body fat percentage. The IBC Assessment is a practical and accurate way of estimating body composition that delivers laboratorygrade accuracy to any trainer or fitness professional with a personal computer. abouT HealTH ProFile insTiTuTe Health Profile Institute is a privately owned company specializing in the fields of health promotion employee health programs and health assessment. HPI has more than 30 years of experience in health promotion in Sweden and other European countries. Health Profile Institute is an approved provider for the American Council on Exercise and the American College of Sports Medicine and has offices in South Africa Sweden the United Arab Emirates and the United States. For more information about the IBC Assessment visit http 1) Measure wrists Excellence in Body Composition We take pride in introducing a new way to measure body s fat and fat-free mass like no other on the market. From now on you can relate body frame and exercise routine with body composition The new Integrative Body Composition Assessment IBC is 2) Measure waist Fast and Non-invasive Accurate and Easy to Learn Reliable and Affordable A great tool for promoting your business The most non-invasive assessment available 3) Enter data in the software Calculates fat and fat-free mass in 5 minutes Incorporates exercise routine into the calculation The IBC Kit includes 4) E-mail or print the results Digital Caliper Measuring Tape Software for Windows USB Flash Drive with IBC Forms User Manual and Instructional Video A product of Health Profile Institute Inc. (702) 804-0100 By dr. Edwin H. Adams Pharmacist F or nearly 12 months we have followed the progress of Mitch now 48 years old on a fitness transformation journey. In our introduction to Mitch s story he measured in at 5-foot-8 and 230 pounds. He reached his initial weight loss goal of a 20-pound drop however Mitch realized that it was not enough. It wasn t about the number on the scale any more. He saw the aesthetic changes taking place and he wanted more After eight months of steady weightloss progress Mitch decided that another 20 pounds must come off. He knew that there was more fat to burn but he also knew that he was developing lean mass as well. These stubborn twenty have challenged Mitch and his trainer Josh who incorporated new training regimens to facilitate additional progress to the new goal. Along the way Mitch has fallen prey to a few interactions between fitness and pharmacology. First Mitch struggled with over the counter pain medications in the management of delayed onset muscle soreness. Next Mitch suffered the painful effects of accidentally getting muscle pain relief cream in his eye. And more recently Mitch encountered the powerful effects of caffeine when used in excess. They say all good things must come to an end well Mitch has begun to experience a new issue that has made him a little uncomfortable. We know that Mitch has hit his workouts hard especially when one considers his age. Of course things didn t start out that way. But with his new fervor for further progress Mitch gives it his all. Josh no longer has to tell him to push himself harder. Mitch does this instinctively with the passion of an athlete. His new work ethic has led to a new problem though. The straining against an increasing resistance has caused a pain in his gluteus maximus. Poor Mitch always moving forward yet taking a step backward because of one health issue or another. But this new issue had an insidious beginning. It started as a mild discomfort and has increased in intensity over time. Mitch initially thought it was a muscle strain. The intensity would wax and wane over the weeks but it never really went away. More recently he has narrowed down the suspect cause. It s an embarrassing issue and one most men don t like to comment on. The intensity of the discomfort has reached that critical stage where some intervention has to take place. Mitch has fallen prey to hemorrhoids a condition not uncommon for a man in his 40s or 50s. However cases have been known to occur as early as the late teenage years particularly for weight lifters. Hemorrhoids can be very problematic. Although most cases can be treated successfully with over the counter medications some may need medical intervention. The distinguishing factors of cases of hemorrhoids that require medical treatment are those that are more internal to the anal opening or those that are bleeding. The blood associated with a severe hemorrhoid will typically be bright red in appearance. As this could be an indicator of a more severe issue with the gastrointestinal tract any bleeding hemorrhoid should be carefully evaluated by a physician. External hemorrhoids are easily detected upon self-examination. The swelling irritation and itching make them very noticeable particularly during or after intense exercise. Generally speaking the external hemorrhoid may be managed initially with self-care. When home care therapies do not work or the severity of the problem worsens (e.g. bleeding) that is an indicator to seek medical attention. A pharmacist will be able to guide a client through over the counter product selection self-care techniques and may also provide advice on when to seek medical attention. There are a variety of products available for use. Because hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels increased heat and or elevated vascular pressure may make them worse. Increased heart rates elevated blood pressure straining against resistance sweating and friction may contribute to the symptoms. Additionally due to tenderness hygiene may be compromised. Paper products and soaps can further irritate the already inflamed tissue. However the maintenance of proper hygiene is always part of the treatment plan. Some posture positions also add to the irritation. Sitting for long periods of time may increase the pressure in the vicinity of the inflammation. Thus typical office work or long distance driving may potentially worsen the symptoms. Nondrug therapy modalities could include a modification of seat cushions to better support the posture. Donut-shaped cushions are no longer recommended as they may restrict blood flow to the area. For medicated self-care there are several products in the armamentarium. Firstly for general hygiene wet towelettes which include an astringent are preferred. A moistened towelette will reduce the friction on the inflamed tissues. Witch hazel is a common active ingredient found in most over the counter towelette products. As an astringent witch hazel draws moisture from the inflamed tissue thus reducing swelling. Cleansing of the area is enhanced through friction reduction and the mild anti-inflammatory actions of the astringent. Proper hygiene will aid in reducing the pain and irritation particularly after a bowel movement. For hemorrhoids that are more internal medicated suppositories may be required. For external symptoms several topical ointments are available. Older products like Preparation H contain a vasoconstrictor called phenylephrine. This medication works to shrink the swollen blood vessel through stimulation of the vessel s circular muscles causing it to contract. Other ingredients add anesthetic properties to the formulation. Pramoxine is a medication found in some of over the counter combination products. The basic function of this medication is to numb the irritated tissue. Some of the more powerful topical therapies include hydrocortisone an anti-inflammatory steroid as the active ingredient. Although limited in strength for over the counter use more powerful prescription products are available. Therapy with hydrocortisone is limited to 1-2 weeks as it may adversely affect the skin around the anus. Oral pain medications like acetaminophen are OK to use when the irritation is intolerable. However the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen should be avoided as they may increase the risk of bleeding from the hemorrhoid. Lastly straining during bowel movements should be avoided. Sufferers daily intake should include adequate amounts of dietary fiber and water to keep the stool soft. Other nonpharmacologicmeasures include ice cotton underwear posture shifts and sitz baths. There are also cold packs designed for use with hemorrhoids. CryoStat is a set of over the counter selfcooling single-use packs for topical therapy. With this closing discussion of hemorrhoids we will say goodbye to Mitch and his transformation story. He is well on his way to success with the aid of his informed personal trainer. It has been a journey of triumph over adversity as well as an educational opportunity showing how pharmaceuticals and fitness interact. However fitness and pharmacology don t have to be in opposition. With the support of the health professions clients can benefit from quality information leading to optimal health and fitness outcomes. until next time stay pharmacy fit. Dr. edwin H. adams is a pharmacist with the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals. He has over 18 years of clinical pharmacy experience in the areas of managed care pharmacy law sports medicine rheumatology and geriatric medicine among others. He developed his interest in pharmacy and sports medicine through his continuing work as a Doping Control Officer with the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA). Edwin holds a Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences and a Bachelor of Pharmacy degree from Northeast Louisiana University. He completed his residency training at The Penn State Medical Center. By Miguel Franco O ver the years people have constantly searched for answers to the question What is the most efficient way to get fit and stay motivated That is a method that takes the least amount of time while also remaining effective. I ve also considered this question and I have come to a simple answer in-home personal training. But why is in-home personal training so effective Well let s get some answers Firstly while regular exercise seems to be a way of life for some and an obstacle for others there was a time when it was a necessity for everyone. Our brains are naturally hardwired to save energy as a way to survive due to our ancestors having to hunt and forage for their own food as well as having to endure periods of famine. Today things are a bit different we don t have to hunt down or chase prey we don t have to go through periods of starvation we have plenty of food sources This day-to-day self-destructive behavior upsets the energy storage equation and has a very negative impact on health. Once these people decide in industrialized countries (said food is also hyper-caloric) and on top of that we work more out of the home compared to people from just a few decades ago. Nowadays people walk less and keep their refrigerators close by which is not a good thing These lifestyle changes have rewired our brains in such a way that some are habitually seeking out high-energy dense foods such as fast food and sugary drinks while also expending less energy watching television rather than going for a walk. that enough is enough usually during the month of January and after the Christmas holidays they then embark on a fitness journey that for some lasts for as little as two weeks but for others becomes a lifetime experience. A high sense of motivation embraces all fitness beginners on their first steps towards a healthier lifestyle but soon after some start encountering obstacles that may eventually decrease their motivation and make them quit while others continue. Those who have tried and given up know this very well because they have done it many times and can t seem to find an answer as to why they quit. This frustration drives some of them to the point where they decide that exercise is something they will pick up sometime in the near future (keep in mind that during this sedentary period the body may develop a chronic disease like high blood pressure or diabetes to name a few) and once again they are back to square one eating more and moving less. The answer to this has to do a lot more with psychology than anything else but that can be discussed in a future article. An in-home personal training program can provide some relief from these issues by simply making things easier especially for those who have difficulties. Having an in-home personal trainer can have a huge impact on the way clients adhere to and maintain a fitness program for instance it eliminates the commute to the gym. The time and effort spent getting ready to leave the house then getting into a car bus train can be a big deterrent for anyone starting out on the path to fitness and it can subsequently become a reason to quit. However if the trainer shows up at their client s place of residence this will save them time and they can avoid the obstacles and delays of commuting especially in the middle of the winter. This facilitates and therefore increases the chances for them to adhere to a fitness program. An in-home personal trainer will have better insight into their client s habits by getting to know the way they live and learning their daily routines. This information is key when prescribing exercise and nutritional programs. For example the trainer can get an idea of the quality of food purchased and suggest methods of shopping or reading labels or he she can get more involved by providing clients with a shopping list or even helping them buy their groceries. The trainer can also help utilize the home as a tool for exercise for example having the client walk up and down a set of stairs. A trainer can also set up an efficient home gym that the whole family can enjoy so once the client becomes more independent of their trainer and starts exercising alone they can continue from their own home. Another important aspect of inhome personal training is the involvement of family members. I ve been surprised by how much kids love to see their parents exercise and how over time this creates a pattern of behavior in which exercise is seen not as punishment but as a way for the family to have fun together. An in-home personal trainer can monitor performance once the client gets to the final stage. Because some people tend to get comfortable once they reach their goals they run the risk of falling back into an unhealthy state. It is important to have a personal trainer come around who can through an objective assessment make sure these people stay on the right track. For beginners this is a constant struggle because building up a good habit can take years so it is important for trainers to keep an eye on individuals once they reach their goals. Another remarkable aspect is that many people feel more comfortable exercising at home. There are no large intimidating lifters sticking their chests out or grunting as they curl or bench a ton of weight nor are there any Don Juans (or Juanitas ) trying to bother the clients. At home one can have privacy and to many that is priceless. Another benefit of working out at home is the cleanliness of training in one s own environment. We are less likely to catch colds or bacterial or fungal skin disease from the sometimes unsanitary equipment in a gym. Also there are no membership fees If your clients are having difficulties starting or sticking to a fitness program or they are seeking a way to save time and money try suggesting in-home personal training. Bringing exercise closer to their personal lives may motivate them in a way nothing else could. Miguel Franco is a kinesiologist who has worked as a personal trainer for over 16 years and as an exercise physiologist for over two years. His expertise consists of prescribing inhome personal training programs for all populations especially older adults and individuals affected by chronic disease. Miguel is currently involved in the development of persuasive design methods and technologies to change behaviors related to health and fitness. Having studied in medical school in his native Colombia he believes that physical activity should be fun and health-oriented rather than just focused on weight loss and punishment. Miguel has also worked with Canada s York University to provide high performance testing for firefighters and athletes including the Toronto Maple Leafs. For more information visit